West Africa[ edit ] The knowledge of inoculating oneself against smallpox seems to have been known to West Africans, more specifically the Akan. A slave named Onesimus explained the inoculation procedure to Cotton Mather during the 18th century; he reported to have gotten the knowledge from Africa. The dangers of tobacco smoking were known to African Muslim scholars, based on Timbuktu manuscripts. Ancient Egyptian medicine Ancient Egyptian physicians were renowned in the ancient Near East for their healing skills, and some, like Imhotepremained famous long after their deaths.
Cultural life Cultural milieu Algerian culture and society were profoundly affected by years of colonial rule, by the bitter independence struggle, and by the subsequent broad mobilization policies of postindependence regimes.
A transientnearly rootless society has emerged, whose cultural continuity has been deeply undermined. Algerians have thus been caught between a tradition that no longer commands their total loyalty and a modernism that is attractive yet fails to satisfy their psychological and spiritual needs.
As is true elsewhere in North Africa, Algeria has experienced a dislocating clash between traditional and mass global culture, with Hollywood films and Western popular music commanding the attention of the young at the expense of indigenous forms of artistic and cultural expression.
This clash is the subject of much fiery commentary from conservative Muslim clergymen, whose influence has grown with the rise of Islamic extremism. Daily life and social customs Despite efforts to modernize Algerian society, the pull of traditional values remains strong.
Whether in the city or countryside, the daily life of the average Algerian is permeated with the atmosphere of Islam, which has become identified with the concept of an autonomous Algerian people and of resistance to what many Algerians perceive as a continued Western imperialism.
Practiced largely as a set of social prescriptions and ethical attitudes, Islam in Algeria has more characteristically been identified with supporting tamazight writing a cover values than serving a revolutionary ideology. In particular, the influential Muslim clergy has opposed the emancipation of women.
Algerians traditionally consider the family—headed by the husband—to be the basic unit of society, and women are expected to be obedient and provide support to their husbands.
As in most parts of the Arab world, men and women in Algeria generally have constituted two separate societies, each with its own attitudes and values.
Daily activities and social interaction normally take place only between members of the same gender. Marriage in this milieu is generally considered a family affair rather than a matter of personal preference, and parents typically arrange marriages for their children, although this custom is declining as Algerian women take on a greater role in political and economic life.
Some women continue to wear veils in public because traditionally minded Algerian Muslims consider it improper for a woman to be seen by men to whom she is not related. The practice of veiling has in fact increased since independence, especially in urban areas, where there is a greater chance of contact with nonrelatives.
Algerian cuisine, like that of most North African countries, is heavily influenced by Arab, Amazigh, Turkish, and French culinary traditions. Couscousa semolina-based pasta customarily served with a meat and vegetable stew, is the traditional staple.
Mutton, lamb, and poultry are still the meat dishes of choice; favourite desserts rely heavily on native-grown figs, dates, and almonds and locally produced honey; and couscous and unleavened breads accompany virtually every meal. Brik a meat pastrymerguez beef or lamb sausageand lamb or chicken stew are among the many local dishes served in homes and restaurants.
As is the case in the Middle East, strong, sweet Turkish-style coffee is the beverage of choice at social gatherings, and mint tea is a favourite. The arts Various types of music are native to Algeria.
Both men and women are free to express themselves in this style. Algeria has produced many important writers. The work of Mouloud Feraoun reflects Amazigh life. Algeria has maintained a lively film industry, although filmmakers frequently have endured bouts with government pressure and, more recently, have been subjected to intimidation by Islamic extremists.
The first major postcolonial production was the celebrated film La battaglia di Algeri ; The Battle of Algiers.
Though written and directed by an Italian, Gillo Pontecorvothe work—a stark factual retelling of urban warfare during the revolution—was supported by the Algerian government and was cast with numerous nonactors, including many residents of Algiers who participated in the actual events.
Additionally, director Bourlem Guerdjou examined the difficulties of the Algerian diaspora in France in his award-winning Vivre au paradis ; Living in Paradise. Cultural institutions Algeria has a number of fine museums, most of which are located in the capital and are administered by the Office of Cultural Heritage The National Museum of Antiquities displays artifacts dating from the Roman and Islamic periods.
The National Fine Arts Museum of Algiers houses statues and paintings, including some lesser works of well-known European masters, and the Bardo Museum specializes in history and ethnography. Most other cultural institutions also are found in Algiers, including the National Archives of Algeriathe National Libraryand the Algerian Historical Society Sports and recreation Algerians enjoy football soccerhandball, volleyball, and athletics.
Algerian athletes have participated in the Olympic Games since They have won medals in boxing, but their major success has been in the area of middle-distance runningespecially the 1,metre event, which Algerian runners have won several times. Media and publishing Despite pressure from the government and threats and intimidation by Islamic militants, Algeria has one of the most vigorous presses in the Arab world.Tamazight is the Berber name of the Berber languages or dialects.
This is a family of similar and closely related languages and dialects indigenous to North Africa. In this dictionary you will find Riffian words. Algeria - Cultural life: Algerian culture and society were profoundly affected by years of colonial rule, by the bitter independence struggle, and by the subsequent broad mobilization policies of postindependence regimes.
A transient, nearly rootless society has emerged, whose cultural continuity has been deeply undermined. Seemingly, only deep religious faith and belief in the nation’s.
Fukuoka | Japan Fukuoka | Japan. The area of present-day Morocco has been inhabited since Paleolithic times, sometime between , and 90, BC. A recent publication may demonstrate an even earlier habitation period, as Homo sapiens fossils discovered in the late s near the Atlantic coast in Jebel Irhoud were recently dated to roughly , years before present.
During the Upper Paleolithic, the Maghreb was more. The first full-length treatment of the emergence of the modern Berber identity movement in North Africa and the Berber diaspora, the challenges it poses to Moroccan and Algerian authorities and to competing Islamist movements, and their responses to it.
More Information on US Peace Corps Tamazight Courses Peace Corps- Tamazight Language Lessons COURSE OVERVIEW The Tamazight course is designed Location: 90 Canal Street, Boston, , MA.