Sustainable development The social science disciplines are branches of knowledge taught and researched at the college or university level. Social science disciplines are defined and recognized by the academic journals in which research is published, and the learned social science societies and academic departments or faculties to which their practitioners belong.
Describe the principles of the scientific method and explain its importance in conducting and interpreting research. Differentiate laws from theories and explain how research hypotheses are developed and tested.
Discuss the procedures that researchers use to ensure that their research with humans and with animals is ethical. Philosophers, religious leaders, and politicians, among others, also strive to provide explanations for human behavior. But psychologists believe that research is the best tool for understanding human beings and their relationships with others.
Rather than accepting the claim of a philosopher that people do or do not have free will, a psychologist would collect data to empirically test whether or not people are able to actively control their own behavior.
The statements made by psychologists are empiricalwhich means they are based on systematic collection and analysis of data. The Scientific Method All scientists whether they are physicists, chemists, biologists, sociologists, or psychologists are engaged in the basic processes of collecting data and drawing conclusions about those data.
The methods used by scientists have developed over many years and provide a common framework for developing, organizing, and sharing information.
The scientific method is the set of assumptions, rules, and procedures scientists use to conduct research. In addition to requiring that science be empirical, the scientific method demands that the procedures used be objectiveor free from the personal bias or emotions of the scientist.
The scientific method proscribes how scientists collect and analyze data, how they draw conclusions from data, and how they share data with others. These rules increase objectivity by placing data under the scrutiny of other scientists and even the public at large.
Because data are reported objectively, other scientists know exactly how the scientist collected and analyzed the data. Most new research is designed to replicate—that is, to repeat, add to, or modify—previous research findings. The scientific method therefore results in an accumulation of scientific knowledge through the reporting of research and the addition to and modifications of these reported findings by other scientists.
Laws and Theories as Organizing Principles One goal of research is to organize information into meaningful statements that can be applied in many situations.
Principles that are so general as to apply to all situations in a given domain of inquiry are known as laws. But because laws are very general principles and their validity has already been well established, they are themselves rarely directly subjected to scientific test. The next step down from laws in the hierarchy of organizing principles is theory.
A theory is an integrated set of principles that explains and predicts many, but not all, observed relationships within a given domain of inquiry. One example of an important theory in psychology is the stage theory of cognitive development proposed by the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget.
The theory states that children pass through a series of cognitive stages as they grow, each of which must be mastered in succession before movement to the next cognitive stage can occur.
This is an extremely useful theory in human development because it can be applied to many different content areas and can be tested in many different ways. Good theories have four important characteristics. First, good theories are general, meaning they summarize many different outcomes.
Second, they are parsimonious, meaning they provide the simplest possible account of those outcomes. The stage theory of cognitive development meets both of these requirements. It can account for developmental changes in behavior across a wide variety of domains, and yet it does so parsimoniously—by hypothesizing a simple set of cognitive stages.
Third, good theories provide ideas for future research. Finally, good theories are falsifiable Popper,which means the variables of interest can be adequately measured and the relationships between the variables that are predicted by the theory can be shown through research to be incorrect.
The stage theory of cognitive development is falsifiable because the stages of cognitive reasoning can be measured and because if research discovers, for instance, that children learn new tasks before they have reached the cognitive stage hypothesized to be required for that task, then the theory will be shown to be incorrect.
No single theory is able to account for all behavior in all cases. Rather, theories are each limited in that they make accurate predictions in some situations or for some people but not in other situations or for other people.
As a result, there is a constant exchange between theory and data: Existing theories are modified on the basis of collected data, and the new modified theories then make new predictions that are tested by new data, and so forth.
When a better theory is found, it will replace the old one. This is part of the accumulation of scientific knowledge. The Research Hypothesis Theories are usually framed too broadly to be tested in a single experiment.
Therefore, scientists use a more precise statement of the presumed relationship among specific parts of a theory—a research hypothesis—as the basis for their research.
A research hypothesis is a specific and falsifiable prediction about the relationship between or among two or more variables, where a variable is any attribute that can assume different values among different people or across different times or places.
The research hypothesis states the existence of a relationship between the variables of interest and the specific direction of that relationship. Conceptual variables are abstract ideas that form the basis of research hypotheses.Integrated Scientific Method (ISM) is a model of scientific action.
It is a synthesis of ideas — mainly from scientists and philosophers, but also from sociologists, psychologists, historians, and myself — that. human behavior is complex and requires an integrated approach to explain its origins sometimes it is necessary to create a model to help clarify a complex set of .
The Scientific Management/ Perspective THE HUMAN BEHAVIOR SCHOOL Emphasize the structure of organization (Work, design, and measurement to the interaction of individual, their motivation and their influence on organization).
• Discovering the scientific method for tasks and jobs.
Human factors and engineering psychologists strive to make everyday experiences easier, more comfortable and less frustrating by applying the psychological science of human behavior to the products, systems and devices we use every day. Human science studies the philosophical, biological, social, and cultural aspects of human life.
Human Sciences aims to expand our understanding of the human world through a broad interdisciplinary approach. It encompasses a wide range of fields - including history, philosophy, genetics, sociology, psychology, evolutionary biology, biochemistry, neurosciences and anthropology.
Describe the principles of the scientific method and explain its importance in conducting and interpreting research. Psychologists aren’t the only people who seek to understand human behavior and solve social problems. Philosophers, religious leaders, and politicians, among others, also strive to provide explanations for human behavior.