Outline[ edit ] Portrait of Immanuel Kantwho developed ethical theory Although all of Kant's work develops his ethical theory, it is most clearly defined in Groundwork of the Metaphysics of MoralsCritique of Practical Reason and Metaphysics of Morals. As part of the Enlightenment tradition, Kant based his ethical theory on the belief that reason should be used to determine how people ought to act. No other virtue has this status because every other virtue can be used to achieve immoral ends the virtue of loyalty is not good if one is loyal to an evil person, for example. The good will is unique in that it is always good and maintains its moral value even when it fails to achieve its moral intentions.
Her surname is sometimes erroneously given as Porter. Immanuel Kant believed that his paternal grandfather Hans Kant was of Scottish origin. He was brought up in a Pietist household that stressed religious devotion, humility, and a literal interpretation of Kants moral theory Bible.
He never married, but seemed to have a rewarding social life — he was a popular teacher and a modestly successful author even before starting on his major philosophical works. A common myth is that Kant never traveled more than 16 kilometres 9.
Young scholar[ edit ] Kant showed a great aptitude for study at an early age. He first attended the Collegium Fridericianum from which he graduated at the end of the summer of Knutzen dissuaded Kant from the theory of pre-established harmonywhich he regarded as "the pillow for the lazy mind".
He also dissuaded Kant from idealismthe idea that reality is purely mental, which most philosophers in the 18th century regarded in a negative light. The theory of transcendental idealism that Kant later included in the Critique of Pure Reason was developed partially in opposition to traditional idealism.
Inhe published his first philosophical work, Thoughts on the True Estimation of Living Forces written in — Kant also correctly deduced that the Milky Way was a large disk of starswhich he theorized formed from a much larger spinning gas cloud. He further suggested that other distant "nebulae" might be other galaxies.
These postulations opened new horizons for astronomy, for the first time extending it beyond the Solar System to galactic and intergalactic realms. In the early s, Kant produced a series of important works in philosophy. Two more works appeared the following year: To miss this distinction would mean to commit the error of subreptionand, as he says in the last chapter of the dissertation, only in avoiding this error does metaphysics flourish.
The issue that vexed Kant was central to what 20th-century scholars called "the philosophy of mind ". The flowering of the natural sciences had led to an understanding of how data reaches the brain. Sunlight falling on an object is reflected from its surface in a way that maps the surface features color, texture, etc.
The reflected light reaches the human eye, passes through the cornea, is focused by the lens onto the retina where it forms an image similar to that formed by light passing through a pinhole into a camera obscura.
The retinal cells send impulses through the optic nerve and then they form a mapping in the brain of the visual features of the object.
The interior mapping is not the exterior object, and our belief that there is a meaningful relationship between the object and the mapping in the brain depends on a chain of reasoning that is not fully grounded.
But the uncertainty aroused by these considerations, by optical illusions, misperceptions, delusions, etc. Kant saw that the mind could not function as an empty container that simply receives data from outside.Kant's Moral Theory.
Kant's Moral Philosophy is, as you would expect, difficult to understand. It has become popular in our times, mainly as a viable alternative to utilitarianism. Since utilitarian theory downplays the moral significance of such important elements as respect, human dignity, individual rights, and minority protection, an.
Kant on Moral Worth. The Moral Worth of Persons: Kant also has something to say about what makes someone a good person.
5. Moral Theory. Kant’s moral theory is organized around the idea that to act morally and to act in accordance with reason are one and the same. Immanuel Kant () is one of the most influential philosophers in the history of Western philosophy. His contributions to metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, The third version of the categorical imperative ties Kant's whole moral theory together. Insofar as they possess a rational will, people are set off in the natural order of things. Immanuel Kant () Kant's most original contribution to philosophy is his "Copernican Revolution," that, as he puts it, it is the representation that makes the object possible rather than the object that makes the representation possible [§14, A92/B, note].This introduced the human mind as an active originator of experience rather than .
Keep in mind that Kant intends this to go along with the rest of his theory, and what one's duty is would be determined by the categorical imperative.
The Fallacies of Egoism and Altruism, and the Fundamental Principle of Morality (after Kant and Nelson) I have not done wrong. The "Negative Confession" or Protestation of Ani, The Egyptian Book of the Dead, The Book of Going Forth by Day, The Complete Papyrus of Ani, Featuring Integrated Text and Full-Color Images, translated by Dr.
. Adam Smith () wrote two great books, the well-known Wealth of Nations and Theory of Moral Sentiments which has been overshadowed by his treatise on economics. Contrary to popular belief, these two works do not exist in isolation from one another.
Dec 11, · This feature is not available right now. Please try again later. Immanuel Kant, The greatest member of the idealist school of German philosophy, Immanuel Kant was born at Königsberg, where he spent his entire life, the son of a saddler, reputedly of Scottish origin.