A History of the World in 6 Glasses Section 1: Beer was not invented, it was discovered. Exactly when the first beer was brewed is unknown but there was almost certainly no beer before 10, BCE. The rise of beer was closely associated with the domestication of the cereal grains rom which it is made and the adoption of farming.
Eurasia happened to have an abundance of edible material because of the right environment leading to the domestication of plants and animals led the people to settle down in one place instead of being nomads.
When people started to settle down and bring the food to them, they started to have a surplus which led for the people to have extra jobs and it started to also support a higher population while allowing women to have more children contributing to job specialization.
These specialists were not devoted to farmers or food producers but varied to priests, blacksmiths etc. Permanent agriculture societies were able to from with the food surpluses leading to empires. Some of the reason that people began to settle down and farm are because at the time many wild foods began to decrease due to hunters and gatherers killing off too many large animals leaving life unsustainable.
More wild plants that could be domesticated became available at the time. Technological advances allowe3d people to harvest and store greater amounts of food that they cultivated.
As populations rose, they needed to have better food supplies and started farming. The farm societies were able to drive out neighboring hunter-gatherers.
A continent with long east-west axis like Eurasia has an advantage over continents with long north-south axes like Africa and the Americas. The reasons it does have to do with crops and longitude. In general similar crops can grow at similar longitudes.
In other words a cropped that developed in one place can be spread east to west or west to east but less likely to spread north and south. Epidemic diseases developed among the Guns germs and steel essay help that had been farming the longest. These were Eurasian societies.
Societies in the Americas, Australia, and other places had not been farming as long and lacked epidemic diseases. When Europeans came in contact with Native Americans, for example, European epidemic diseases killed huge percentages of the Native Americans.
This helped the Europeans conquer and the conquest made them richer and more powerful. The societies that did independently invent writing were those with complex hierarchies and sophisticated systems of food production.
Writing was needed for politics and was generally learned by bureaucrats who had the comfort of available time and energy. As food was available to them, they had no need to hunt and gather for themselves. Since their basic needs were being met, they could focus on a higher level of existence and communication.
There are two conditions in which technology may develop. Technology differed from place to place because there were more people to invent and better diffusion to spread the invention.
The opposite happened in the Americas because there were less people and a slower diffusion rate. Also different cultures had different ideas for change. The only way that society can emerge is through food.
Such developments include jobs, such as the chief and the beginnings of government. The institutions of society changed over time based on how organized they were. They evolved based around various factors like war and other societies. They are related by diffusion. Whenever a state is conquered by another state they enforce use of their technology or exploit it.
States are going to develop weapons, troops, and religion in order to make the state survive. They develop in response to need of their population size. They use these agents of conquest to become larger and to conquer other societies; and for that they need guns, germs, and steel. What Diamond is saying is that he thinks that people really should not think that history is so much different from the sciences.
He argues that historians can use these — they can look at what was different and what was similar and how the differences led to the differences in the outcomes.
By looking at environmental conditions that caused the disparities that lead to certain societies developing guns, germs, and steel, including other technology, and forming a government necessary for conquest.
He used archaeological and historical case studies and evidence from genetics and linguistics, he argued that technological and gaps in power are not caused by race or culture differences but by environmental differences, He used the idea of the axis as one saying that Eurasia had an east to west or west to east therefore having an advantage over Africa or the Americas for instance, because crops could grow at the same longitude but it was more difficult as they went north and south.
Also when cultural or genetic differences have favored Eurasians like for example written language or resistance to epidemic diseases he says these advantages occurred because of the influence and geography on societies and cultures and were not inherited as genes from Eurasian ancestors.
The book had evidence to back it up by explaining how Eurasia had a better opportunity being west to east meaning they had better crop farming.
Which led to a growing civilization and soon conquest. It was like any other history book it asked a question, then went on to the point. From beginning to end, Diamond stresses that he realizes that efforts to compare societies have frequently been used by racists or nationalists to belittle groups or justify mistreatment of them.
He argues that his analysis is in fact anti-racism at work because it shows that the white people who enjoy the comforts of modern life are ultimately luckier than, not more deserving than, people in impoverished nations.Guns, Germs, Steel, and controversy: Diamonds unique look at evolution and history.
Through out Guns, Germs, and Steel, Jared Diamond attempts to explain the dominance of certain ethnicities. The backbone to this book and the questions that Diamond asks and answers, stem from a question asked of.
Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies (also titled Guns, Germs and Steel: A short history of everybody for the last 13, years) is a transdisciplinary non-fiction book by Jared Diamond, professor of geography and physiology at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).
We will write a custom essay sample on Guns Germs and Steel specifically for you for only $ $/page. Therefore germs help to answer Yali’s question.
The societies that did independently invent writing were those with complex hierarchies and sophisticated systems of food production. Guns, Germs, and Steel Book Review I think. Guns, Germs, and Steel; Diseases Disease influenced a lot of the world’s history, how these disease reached human, and how over a period of time we became mutated to these diseases.
It affected a lot of wars, and settlements, such as when the new world was discovered. Guns, Germs, and Steel Questions and Answers. The Question and Answer section for Guns, Germs, and Steel is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel.
Guns, Germs, and Steel Homework Help Questions. Why, according to Guns, Germs, and Steel, did some people not develop writing? The answer to this can be found in Chapter