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Brazil today has a well-developed organization of science and technology. Basic research is largely carried out in public universities and research centers and institutes, and some in private institutions, particularly in non-profit non-governmental organizations.
Brazil is one of the three countries in Latin America  with an operational Synchrotron Laboratory, a research facility for physics, chemistry, materials science and life sciences. Applied research, technology and engineering are also largely carried out in the university sector and research centres, contrary to trends in more developed countries such as the United States of America, South KoreaGermany, Japan, etc.
Brazilian funding for research, development and innovation comes from six main sources: Government federal, state and municipal sources. MCT is a relatively novel ministry, having been created in Before this, CNPq was the only research granting institution at federal level, working directly under the Presidency of Republic.
Usually these foundations are guaranteed by changes in the state constitutions, along the s and s.
Indirect funding through the budgets of public and private universities, institutes and centers. Their source of revenue is the government itself via budgetary allocations by ministries and state secretaries and investment of a part of products and services sold. National private and non-for-profit associations and foundations, via statutory mechanisms or donations by private individuals or companies.
An example is the Banco do Brasil Foundation. States may opt to develop their own research institutes and university systems but, as all laws and regulations are adopted at federal level, they all have to follow the same rules and regulations. Thus, they all come up against the same hurdles.
These include extensive bureaucratic structures, an obligation to recruit staff, academic or otherwise, from among public servants, analogous career ladders and salary systems, an irregular flow of funds, overly complex procurement procedures and powerful unions in the civil service.
A structural alternative was developed inwith the creation of social organizations.
These private, non-profit entities manage public research facilities under contract to federal agencies. They have the autonomy to hire or fire staff, contract services, buy equipment, choose the topics and objectives of scientific or technological research and sign research contracts with private companies.
The flexibility accorded to these social organizations and their management style have made them a success story in Brazilian science. As ofthere were six such organizations: Embrapii is the most recent. It was established by the federal government in to stimulate innovation through a system of calls for proposals; only institutions and enterprises deemed eligible may respond to these calls, thus speeding up the whole process and offering applicants a greater chance of success; Embrapii was due to be assessed in late Arguably the most important milestone was the National Law on Innovation.
GERD in Brazil by funding sector, — Neither of these targets had thus been reached by this time. Concerning tertiary scholarships, CNPq and Capes easily reached the target for PhDs 31, by and 42, by but fell short of reaching the target for tertiary scholarships as a wholeby The target of the National Plan for Graduate Education — was for 16 PhDs to be granted by the end of the plan period.
Since the actual number of PhDs granted stood at 11 in and less than 14 inthis target has not been reached either, despite the fact that almost 42 federal PhD scholarships were granted in For instance, inover 19 million students took part in the Brazilian Mathematics Olympiad for Public Schools, up from 14 million in International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) is an open access online peer reviewed international journal that publishes research.
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