California Wildfires The Hydrocarbon Fuel Paradigm and the Technosphere Because the current trajectories regarding global temperature, precipitation, pressure, greenhouse gases, among other significant meteorological metrics, find their source at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, it would seem necessary to start there. There is a very interesting and telling correlation between the increase in world population and the burgeoning use of hydrocarbon fuels, such as oil and natural gas, shown below.
Between the start of the Industrial Revolution inand the yearthe increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide chemical formula: The climate system will vary in response to changes in forcings. This internal variability is a result of complex interactions between components of the climate system, such as the coupling between the atmosphere and ocean see also the later section on Internal climate variability and global warming.
Human factors include the emissions of heat-trapping "greenhouse" gases and particulates as well as clearing of forests and other land-use changes.
Attribution requires demonstrating that a signal is: Key attributions Greenhouse gases Carbon dioxide is the primary greenhouse gas that is contributing to recent climate change.
The Kyoto Protocol lists these together with hydrofluorocarbon HFCsperfluorocarbons PFCsand sulfur hexafluoride SF6 which are entirely artificial gases, as contributors to radiative forcing. The chart at right attributes anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions to eight main economic sectors, of which the largest contributors are power stations many of which burn coal or other fossil fuelsindustrial processes, transportation fuels generally fossil fuelsand agricultural by-products mainly methane from enteric fermentation and nitrous oxide from fertilizer use.
However, on a global scale, the concentration of water vapor is controlled by temperature, which influences overall rates of evaporation and precipitation. Between andabout two-thirds of anthropogenic CO2 emissions were produced from burning fossil fuels, and about one-third of emissions from changes in land use,  primarily deforestation.
A second reason that climate change has been attributed to land use is that the terrestrial albedo is often altered by use, which leads to radiative forcing.
This effect is more significant locally than globally. Aerosols produced are primarily black carbon. Over the past years human activities have released increasing quantities of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.
This has led to increases in mean global temperature, or global warming. Other human effects are relevant—for example, sulphate aerosols are believed to have a cooling effect. Natural factors also contribute. The phrase "balance of evidence" suggested the English common-law standard of proof required in civil as opposed to criminal courts: In the Third Assessment Report TAR refined this, saying "There is new and stronger evidence that most of the warming observed over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities".
Evidence of the effect of external influences, both anthropogenic and natural, on the climate system has continued to accumulate since the TAR. The warming occurred in both the ocean and the atmosphere and took place at a time when natural external forcing factors would likely have produced cooling.
Among the possible factors that could produce changes in global mean temperature are internal variability of the climate system, external forcing, an increase in concentration of greenhouse gases, or any combination of these. Current studies indicate that the increase in greenhouse gases, most notably CO2, is mostly responsible for the observed warming.
Evidence for this conclusion includes: Estimates of internal variability from climate models, and reconstructions of past temperatures, indicate that the warming is unlikely to be entirely natural.
Climate models forced by natural factors and increased greenhouse gases and aerosols reproduce the observed global temperature changes; those forced by natural factors alone do not.
This conclusion rests on multiple lines of evidence. Like the warming "signal" that has gradually emerged from the "noise" of natural climate variability, the scientific evidence for a human influence on global climate has accumulated over the past several decades, from many hundreds of studies.
No single study is a " smoking gun. The second line of evidence is from indirect estimates of climate changes over the last 1, to 2, years. These records are obtained from living things and their remains like tree rings and corals and from physical quantities like the ratio between lighter and heavier isotopes of oxygen in ice coreswhich change in measurable ways as climate changes.
The lesson from these data is that global surface temperatures over the last several decades are clearly unusual, in that they were higher than at any time during at least the past years. For the Northern Hemispherethe recent temperature rise is clearly unusual in at least the last 1, years see graph opposite.
For example, when climate models are run with historical increases in greenhouse gases, they show gradual warming of the Earth and ocean surface, increases in ocean heat content and the temperature of the lower atmosphere, a rise in global sea level, retreat of sea ice and snow cover, cooling of the stratospherean increase in the amount of atmospheric water vapor, and changes in large-scale precipitation and pressure patterns.
These and other aspects of modelled climate change are in agreement with observations. Each factor that affects climate produces a unique pattern of climate response, much as each person has a unique fingerprint.
Fingerprint studies exploit these unique signatures, and allow detailed comparisons of modelled and observed climate change patterns. Scientists rely on such studies to attribute observed changes in climate to a particular cause or set of causes. In the real world, the climate changes that have occurred since the start of the Industrial Revolution are due to a complex mixture of human and natural causes.
The importance of each individual influence in this mixture changes over time.Preface.. This book makes the case that the poor arrived years ago when America was first settled, and most of them never rose to the middle or upper classes because “land was the principal source of wealth, and those without any had little chance to escape servitude.
Deforestation Effects, Causes, and Examples List - Over half of the world's forests have been destroyed in the last 10, or so years -- the majority of. The Energy Racket. By Wade Frazier.
Revised in June Introduction and Summary. A Brief Prehistory of Energy and Life on Earth. Early Civilization, Energy and the Zero-Sum Game. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a scientific and intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations, set up at the request of member governments, dedicated to the task of providing the world with an objective, scientific view of climate change and its political and economic impacts.
It was first established in by two United Nations organizations, the. This started with a tweet. I’m embarrassed how often that happens.
Frustrated by a sense of global mispriorities, I blurted out some snarky and mildly regrettable tweets on the lack of attention to climate change in the tech industry (Twitter being a sublime medium for the snarky and regrettable).
Climate change is the problem of our time, it’s everyone’s problem, and most of our problem. Description of a Climate Change Analyst Career - A Climate Change Analyst, also known as C.C.A., is a person that use existing climate data to create mathematical models of what will happen to ocean and land temperatures in the next 50 years.