Prior to the first irruption of what developed into French, and European, revolutionary unrest after the political shape of the Italian peninsula derived in large part from the influence of Papal diplomacy over the previous millennium where the Popes had tended to strongly support the existence of a number of small states in the north of the peninsula such that no strong power might presume to try to overshadow the papacy. Such political decentralisation may have facilitated the emergence of a number of mercantile city states such as the Florence of the Medicis and the Milan of the Sforzas and to have allowed a scenario where ambitious men such as Cesare Borgia could attempt to establish themselves as rulers of territories won by statecraft and the sword.
Early life[ edit ] Camillo Benso was born in Turin during Napoleonic rule, into a family that had gained a fair amount of land during the French occupation. He was sent to the Turin Military Academy when he was only ten years old. In July he was named a page to Charles Albertthe king of Piedmont — Cavour frequently ran afoul of the authorities in the academy, as he was too headstrong to deal with the rigid military discipline.
He was once forced to live three days on bread and water because he had been caught with books that the academy had banned. He was found to be apt at the mathematical disciplines, and was therefore enlisted in the Engineer Corps in the Piedmontese-Sardinian army in While in the army, he studied the English language as well as the works of Jeremy Bentham and Benjamin Constantdeveloping liberal tendencies which made him suspect to police forces at the time.
He administered the family estate at Grinzane, some forty kilometers outside the capital, serving as mayor there from to the revolutionary upheaval of Coat of arms of the Count of Cavour: Argent on a chief gules three scallop shells or.
Cavour then lived for a time in Switzerlandwith his Protestant relatives in Geneva. He grew acquainted with Calvinist teachings, and for a short while he converted from a form of unorthodox Catholicismonly to go back later.
A Reformed pastor, Alexandre Vinetimpressed upon Cavour the need for the separation of church and statea doctrine Cavour followed for the remainder of his life. He next went to London, where he was much more disappointed by British politics, and toured the country, visiting OxfordLiverpoolBirminghamChesterNottinghamand Manchester.
A quick tour through the Netherlands, Germany, and Switzerland the German part and the Lake Geneva area eventually landed him back in Turin. Cavour believed that economic progress had to precede political change, and stressed the advantages of railroad construction in the peninsula.
Between and Cavour began several initiatives in attempts to solve economic problems in his area. He experimented with different agricultural techniques on his estate, such as growing sugar beetsand was one of the first Italian landowners to use chemical fertilizers.
In his spare time, he again traveled extensively, mostly in France and the United Kingdom. Early political career[ edit ] An early portrait of Cavour. The first apparently "liberal" moves of Pope Pius IX and the political upheavals of spawned a new movement of Italian liberalism, allowing Cavour to enter the political arena, no longer in fear of the police.
He then gave a speech in front of numerous journalists in favor of a constitution for Piedmont, which was eventually granted. Cavour, unlike several other political thinkers, was not at first offered a position in the new Chamber of Deputiesas he was still a somewhat suspicious character to the nation.
For example, during the conservative period, he gained a reputation as a non-revolutionary progressive. He was a poor public speaker.
Cavour then lost the next election, while the Piedmontese army was destroyed at the Battle of Novaraleading Charles Albert to abdicate, passing the throne to his son, Victor Emmanuel II.
His knowledge of European markets and modern economics earned him the positions of Minister of Agriculture, Minister of Commerce, and Minister of the Navy in Cavour united the Right Center and the Left Center in the chamber to show dominance there as well.
It allowed Cavour to begin his railway expansion program, giving Piedmont kilometres of track by the yearone third of the railways in Italy at the time.
He took the lead in legislation weakening the powers of the Church to own land, control the schools and supervise marriage laws. When the bishops protested, they were punished or exiled, making Cavour the hero of liberal anticlerical elements across Italy. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. November Learn how and when to remove this template message Official portrait of Camillo Benso in The King reluctantly accepted Cavour as prime minister, the most conservative possible choice, but their relationship was never an easy one.
Cavour dominated debate in Parliament but is criticized for the controversial methods he used while Prime Minister, including excessive use of emergency powers, employing friends, bribing some newspapers while suppressing others, and rigging elections, though these were fairly common practices for the time.
The national debt soared by a factor of six because of his heavy spending on modernizing projects, especially railways, and building up the army and navy. The allied powers of Britain and France asked Piedmont to enter the Crimean Warpartially to encourage Austria to enter, which it would not do unless it was certain that Piedmontese troops were not available to attack Austrian positions in Italy.
This was too late to truly distinguish themselves militarily, but the 18, man contingent earned Piedmont a position at the Congress of Paris that ended the war. While in jail awaiting trial, Orsini wrote a public letter to the Emperor of the French, ending with, "Remember that, so long as Italy is not independent, the peace of Europe and Your Majesty is but an empty dreamJan 02, · Best Answer: After the confusion of , the Kingdom of Sardinia, or Piedmont, as it is better known, arose as a constitutional monarchy with the one and only Italian monarch in Italy, King Victor Emmanuel of the House of Savoy.
The king was just a figurehead however, for there was a great power behind the throne of the small timberdesignmag.com: Resolved. German Unification () Summary Whereas Camillo di Cavour directed Italian unification, a Junker (the Prussian name for an aristocratic landowner from old Prussia in the east) named Otto von Bismarck pushed German unification through "blood and iron" and skillful understanding of realpolitik.
Nov 28, · The presence of the Pope in central Italy with his mass international support was a great obstacle to Italian unification. The rulers of Austrian origin in the North, the Pope in Central Italy and the Bourbon rulers in the the south were all opposed to any unification.
It was against this trend that Cavour had to fight.
Diplomacy was his Status: Resolved. Cavour warned the Italian parliament that Italy could not make war on Austria single-handed, he still hoped that Venice would be joined into Italy but told the chamber that it was a "secret of providence" whether such a "deliverance" would . What actions did Cavour and Bismarck take to bring about unification in Italy and Germany, respectively, and what role did war play in their efforts?
- Cavour used politics, he knew he couldnt take down Austria on his own so he got help from the Napolion lll. even thought the . Start studying Italian and German Unification. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.