In practice, however, surface dipole layers do arise. This is because at the surface of a solid the atoms have neighbours on one side only. This causes a distortion of the electron cloud belonging to the surface atoms, so that the centres of the positive and negative charge do not coincide.
August 1, LJMU The founder of the legendary rock band Queen has completed his doctoral thesis in astrophysics after taking a year break to play some guitar.
Brian May's thesis examines the mysterious phenomenon known as Zodiacal light, a misty diffuse cone of light that appears in the western sky after sunset and in the eastern sky before sunrise.
Casual observers, if they live under very dark rural skies, can best see the light two to three hours before sunrise as they look east, and many people have been fooled into seeing it as the first sign of morning twilight.
A Persian astronomer who lived around the 12th century referred to it as "false dawn" in a poem. Astronomers now know that Zodiacal light represents reflected sunlight shining on scattered space debris clustered most densely near the sun.
The millions of particles range in size from tiny asteroids to microscopic dust grains, and extend outward beyond the orbit of Mars. May's work focuses on an instrument that recorded scans of morning and evening Zodiacal light between and He also gained the appointment of chancellor for Liverpool John Moores University in November of that year, showing that he's not just any guitar hero.
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